The country analysis (CA) provides the analytical base for the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF). While the implementation of the next UNDAF will only commence in 2013, both the CA and the UNDAF need to be prepared in 2011. The CA is produced by the UNCT itself and is in essence the UNCT’s vision of what the key issues are that need to be addressed, or key client groups that need to be supported in the next 5-7 years. The UNDAF, on the other hand, is a document negotiated between the UNCT and the Government of Nepal (GoN) and, ultimately, agreed upon and signed by both. The CA is the first stage of the overall UNDAF process. CAs are typically developed around a range of issues, such as basic services, environment, agriculture, governance, etc. This time, the UNCT in Nepal has decided to develop a CA ‘with a human face’. Rather than organizing information and analysis around topics, all Heads of Agencies have agreed to organize the upcoming CA around who our clients or target groups should be. In other words, who should be the people that the Nepal UNCT will focus its efforts on in the next 5-7 years? Who are those vulnerable and/or disadvantaged groups in Nepal that we should concentrate on in the years to come? These vulnerable groups could be defined in many ways, e.g. by gender, by age, by ethnicity, by subgroup, by geographical area etc. In identifying these vulnerable groups, we also want to understand what the systemic, underlying reasons for their vulnerability are. For example: is it remoteness? Lack of educational opportunities? Attitudes and beliefs? Is it because they belong to a certain minority group? Or is it the fact that they are not being heard, or don’t have necessary documentation to be able to access services? Or is it the lack of economic opportunities in the area they live in that makes them vulnerable? There could be many different reasons that contribute to the vulnerability of any one particular group, and it is likely that there will be issues that contribute to the vulnerability of more than one group. In the second stage of the process (the preparation of the actual UNDAF), we will seek to identify programmatic interventions to address the underlying systemic reasons for the vulnerability of those groups identified in the CA. As this is an exercise that will be done together with the GoN, taking into account the resources available and the comparative advantage of the UN, we may not be able to address all the issues of all the groups identified in the CA.